Kurtz Corral

 

 

 

 

 

 

Information Sheets


Table of Contents

 

Horse Breed Descriptions:

        American Miniature

        American Paint

        American Saddle

        Appaloosa

        Arabian

        Belgian

        Haflinger

        Hanoverian

        Morab

        Morgan

        Mustang

        Palomino

        Paso Fino

        Pinto

        Pony of the Americas

        Quarter Horse

        Standardbred

        Tennessee Walking

        Thoroughbred

        Welsh Cob

        Welsh Pony

 

Horse Anatomy:

        Horse Bones

        Horse Colors

        Horse Markings

        Horse Muscles

        Horse Points

 

Horse Tack:

        Bit

        Bridle

        Saddle (Western)


Horse Breed Descriptions:

 

American Miniature

PONY

 

OVERVIEW
The American Miniature is obviously a unique breed. Unlike some horses bred particularly for coloration or size, the Miniature is held to conformation standards. It is a strong enough horse to carry children and small adults, and can be used in light draft. Actually, the Miniature was initially brought to the United States for use in the Appalachian coal mines.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
Obviously, the most outstanding feature of the Miniature is its size. It stands up to 34 inches. Other than height, standards require the horse to be of good conformation, looking much like a horse of larger proportions. It is known for its intelligence and alertness. It appears in any color.

 

ORIGIN
Small horses were brought to the U.S. to work in coal mines early in this century. As in years past, small but strong horses were needed to haul carts out of the lead and coal mines of Britain and Holland. These small horses were soon no longer needed in the mines and instead developed as a novelty breed. Through the efforts of the American Miniature Horse Association, formed in 1978, breeders have imported fresh blood from England, Holland, Belgium, and West Germany to ensure conformation standards. The American Miniature has been influenced by the Shetland and the Falabella.

INTERESTING FACTS
The Miniature makes a great pet for those who can not necessarily take on the responsibility or cost of a larger animal. They are curious, attentive, and intelligent. Able to carry light adults, the Miniature can give a taste of the equine world to those unable to mount larger horses.


American Paint

COLOR BREED

OVERVIEW
The American Paint horse is a color breed unlike the Pinto which it resembles. The primary difference between the Paint and the Pinto is the stipulation that to be registered as a Paint, the horse must be either a Quarter Horse or Thoroughbred. The Paint horse is generally found with a stock horse build, although some are used for racing.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The Paint appears in a variety of different conformations, and stands between 14 and 17 hands. What distinguishes the various Paint horses is coloring. Paints, like Pintos, are described as Overo or Tobiano, depending on the pattern of their coloring. Besides piebald and skewbald, there are the types "Overo " and "Tobiano." Overo is a type created by the recessive color gene and the solid (darker) color predominates. It is claimed that Cortes brought two Overo types with him to America in the 1500s. Tobiano is a type created by the dominant color gene and the white is the more predominant color with markings of colors other than white.

 

ORIGIN
The term "paint" is the English translation of the Spanish work Pintado. Paint horses are descended from spotted Quarter horses and Thoroughbreds.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
The creation of the American Paint Horse Association was due in part to the fact that horses of Paint coloring were discriminated against by other associations. For instance, the American Quarter Horse Association will not register a spotted horse regardless of its breeding, however excellent or pure. Many owners of spotted horses feel their horses receive poor marks from show judges due to color. In fact, in some shows judges have been known to refuse the entries of spotted horses. Therefore, there are now a considerable number of shows restricted to spotted horses. Ironically, in the old west, cowhands would pay considerably more for a spotted horse than a horse of conventional coloring.


American Saddle

WARMBLOOD

 

OVERVIEW
There are few breeds which can match the gracefulness of the American Saddle Horse in the show ring. However, this breed has a rich history far removed from the show world. The breed was originally known as the Kentucky Saddle Horse. It was created to serve the needs of farmers and planters who often have to remain in the saddle from dawn until dusk supervising work in the fields. The horse bred for this role needed an even gait which would provide a smooth ride, and the stamina to work long hours. Sometimes the horse would also have to work in harness. In addition to the breed's celebrated role as a showman, it is also successful in trail riding, show jumping and dressage.

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The conformation and overall appearance of the American Saddle Horse is elegance itself. The head is refined and relatively small, with large, expressive eyes and ears that are held erect. The neck is long, erect and muscular. The body is compact with strong shoulders and smooth, muscular quarters. The legs are clean, long and have excellent bone. The hooves are often allowed to grow long. The breed stands between 15 and 16 hands in height. The American Saddle Horse is seen in a variety of colors, the most prominent being bay, brown, chestnut and black.

 

ORIGIN
For many years the vast rough American Terrain required traveling by horseback. Therefore, Americans placed great stock in a horse which could carry them smoothly yet swiftly on their journeys. Cross-breeding horses of various origins led to the creation of a class of horses known as saddlers. These were similar only in that they possessed an excellent gait. The qualities which make the American Saddle Horse such a distinct breed are derived from many other breeds which influenced it. Among these were the Thoroughbred, Morgan, Narragansett Pacer (now extinct), and Canadian Pacer. The acknowledged foundation sire was the Thoroughbred Denmark, who was foaled in 1839 and who died in 1858.

INTERESTING FACTS
In addition to its elegant conformation, the American Saddle Horse is an outstanding performer. There are three types of Saddle Horse: The Harness type, and the Three and Five-Gaited types. The Harness type is shown in light harness put to a light, four-wheeled vehicle. It performs the walk and the Park Trot. The Three-Gaited Saddle Horse works at the Walk, Trot and Canter. The Five-Gaited Saddle Horse works at the latter gaits as well as the Slow-Gait and the Rack. The Slow-Gait is a four-beat gait with remarkable action. The Rack resembles the Slow-Gait although it is done at a much higher speed.

 

Until the late 1800s, the Saddle Horse was considered a type, not a formal breed. In 1891, an attempt was made to register the pedigrees of the most important saddle horses in America. A group of representatives of prominent breeding localities created a list of 17 major stallions. In 1902, the list was reduced to 10. In 1908, only one stallion, named Denmark, remained on the list. Foaled in Kentucky in 1839, Denmark was a Thoroughbred. Besides being a beautiful brown horse and a great sire, Denmark was a successful four-mile racer.

 

FAMOUS AMERICAN SADDLE HORSES
There have been hundreds of truly outstanding Saddle Horses. Any list of the very greatest would include the following:

  • Denmark- foaled in 1939 and owned by Samuel Davenport of Kentucky. Denmark was by Hedgeford, out of Betsey Harrison, both Thoroughbreds. Denmark began a great family of Saddle Horses, his most important son being Gaines Denmark 61.
  • Harrison Chief - Foaled in 1872 and bred by J.W. Cromwell of Kentucky. Harrison Chief's ancestors were Trotters. Harrison Chief was a proponent sire whose offspring showed dynamic action in harness and under saddle. He sired the great Bourbon Chief who was the first horse to combine the qualities of Chief and Denmark Families.

The Great Wing Commander - The Great Wing Commander became a legend in his own time. Foaled in 1943, he was bred and owned by Dodge Stables. Wing Commander was trained and shown by the incomparable Earl Teater. In 1946, Wing Commander was first entered in competition as a five-gaited stallion and began a career of consistent championships. At the Kentucky State Fair in 1948, he won the five-gaited world's grand championship. He continued to win this championship until 1953 when he retired to stud at Dodge Stables. Wing Commander earned a reputation as a proponent sire of Champion Saddle Horses.


Appaloosa

WARMBLOOD

OVERVIEW
Spotted horses have existed since pre-historic times - pre-historic man drew spotted horses on cave walls. Three-thousand-year-old Chinese paintings show colorful spotted horses. In the United States, the Appaloosa as a breed originated in the American West. It is descended from horses selectively bred by the Nez Perce Indians who lived near the Palouse River in Idaho, Oregon and Washington. The Nez Perce took great pride in their horses' appearance and abilities. Any stallion which was not of superior quality was gelded. This, combined with careful breeding, led to a pure and magnificent breed. The Appaloosa is a very popular breed, and there are over 570,000 registered throughout the world.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The most outstanding characteristic is the Appaloosa's "spotted" coloring. The varied patterns and colors are the blanket, leopard, snowflake, and marbleized roan. The spotted portion of the hair can be felt since the darker hair grows at a different rate than the background hair. The average Appaloosa stands between 14.2 and 15.3 hands. Horses less than 14 hands at maturity cannot be registered. The Appaloosa weighs between 800 and 1000 pounds, and has strong legs and quarters. The Appaloosa Horse is increasingly popular and is used for stock work, show and even show jumping.

ORIGIN
The Appaloosa is descended from horses originally brought to America by the Spanish beginning in the 1500s. Spanish horses are frequently spotted due to the Barb blood they carried. The spotted horse was found attractive to the Nez Perce Indians, and hence they bred horses with this coloring in mind. The Nez Perce bred their horses in the canyons of the area near the Palouse River. The canyons proved ideal enclosures for separating horses for selective breeding.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
When Lewis and Clark encountered the Nez Perce; Lewis was struck by the quality of their horses. He described their horses as "an excellent race; they are lofty, elegantly formed, active, and durable..." After incursions into their tribal lands and harassment by white settlers, the Nez Perce attempted to flee. Led by Chief Joseph, the Indians and 3000 of their horses attempted a 1600 mile march to Canada. In battles with the pursuing U.S. Cavalry, the Nez Perce lost many horses - 900 in one battle alone. Only 1100 horses survived the ordeal of the Indian's defeat, and these were dispersed threatening the breed's future.

 

After Appaloosas were dispersed in the Indian wars, stockmen still raised them for working cattle. In time, the circuses discovered the Appaloosa and his decorative appeal. The demand of the big shows raised the price of Appaloosas. A horse trader in Oregon in 1870 bought up many spotted horses, sorted them in matched pairs, and sold them for $3,000 or more to the circuses. His prices to ranchers and Indians seldom reached $100 a head. The Barnes Circus in 1914 was famed for its Liberty Horse Act which featured 12 Appaloosas. The famous equestrians, Ella and Fred Bradna and Fred Derrick, used Appaloosas when they toured with Barnum and Bailey and later Ringling Brothers.

 

Buffalo Bill (William Cody) was a cavalry scout, buffalo hunter and a theatrical showman. In his famous Wild West Show, his favorite mount was a spotted horse variously called Sultan or Van. Rose Bonnier, the leading equine painter in France in the nineteenth century, painted a portrait of Buffalo Bill on Sultan, when he brought his Wild West Show to Paris during a tour of the continent in 1889. The flashy Appaloosas had popular appeal and Cody used them to a great advantage in his show. He assembled horses from all over the world for the Cossack, Gaucho and Cowboy rider; but for his own mount, he chose the Appaloosa. Mrs. Cody had a matched pair of Appaloosas, white with black spots, which she drove to a carriage.

 

A 1937 exhibition of Appaloosas in art and an article on the breed in the Western Horseman Magazine created a new interest in the Indian's spotted horse. The result was the incorporation of the Appaloosa Horse Club in 1938. It barely stayed alive through World War II, but new research on the spotted horse in the old world interested more people in the breed. The first all-Appaloosa show was held at Lewiston, Idaho, in 1948. In 1950, the Appaloosa Horse Club was recognized by the National Association of Stallion Registration Boards. Canada and England also formed Appaloosa Horse Clubs and many regional clubs were formed within the U.S. The modern Appaloosa is a fast-growing and popular breed.


Arabian

HOTBLOOD

OVERVIEW
It is difficult to determine the origin of the Arabian Horse, since its history is clouded by legend and myth. Archaeological evidence is sparse since desert sands long ago pulverized the bones of the Arabian's ancestors. The Koran says that Allah created the horse from a handful of South wind, saying: "Thy name shall be Arabian, and virtue bound into the hair of they forelock... I have made thee master thy friend. I have given thee the power of flight without wings." The Arab was clearly conditioned by its desert environment, where only the strongest and keenest survived. Today they are used for pleasure and trail riding, hunting, jumping, dressage, endurance, ranch work, parades and in harness.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The Arabian horse is characterized by a small head and narrow muzzle, wide-set, large, prominent eyes, deep jowls, and a wide dished forehead. The neck is long and arched, and the throat is thin. The body is lean but muscular, and the legs are strong and straight. Arabs are commonly bay, chestnut, gray, and occasionally black and white. The Arabian's height typically ranges between 14.1 to 15.1 hands. They possess great powers of endurance as well as elegance.

 

ORIGIN
Besides mythological and religious accounts of the Arab's origin, records show that the breed existed as long as 5000 years ago. The Arab has been very carefully bred throughout its history. The Arab is called "Kehilan" in Arabic, which means "Thoroughbred" a name passed on to the breed of that name due to its Arabian progenitors. The Arab is the "purest" of all breeds of horses. There are many types of Arabs which descend through 5 different lines of females: Kuhaylan El Adjus, Siglavy, Habdan, Hamdani and Obajan. Each of these types has distinct physical characteristics.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
The Arabian is one of the most popular breeds of horse in America. The Arabian Horse Registry of America, Inc. (which was originally called the Arabian Horse Club of America) was founded in 1908. The following year, the first stud book was published and listed 71 purebred Arabs in American held by 11 owners. By 1978, a total of 167,501 Arabians had been registered and the number of registered owners was 53,872, including Canada and Mexico. The highest (non-syndicated) price paid for an Arabian as of this writing was $350,000 paid for a stallion, Cometego, in 1977.

 

Arabians are found in a wide variety of uses, including hunting, jumping, endurance, dressage, trail riding and work on ranches. The first horse show devoted exclusively to the Arabian was held in California in 1945. By 1949, the A.H.S.A. had established a separate Arabian division. Arabian horse races were first held at Laurel, Maryland in 1959. At the other extreme of competition, the Arabian International Cutting Horse Jubilee began at Filter, Idaho in 1970.

 

The Arabian has greatly influenced other breeds of horses. Perhaps the most famous Arabian to come to Europe was the Darley Arabian. He became one of the three foundation sires of the Thoroughbred breed. Arabian blood has proved a significant influence on other breeds. In addition to the Arabian native to the Middle East, there are also distinct strains of Arabs in France, Germany, Poland and America.

 

Unlike other horsemen, the Bedouins only used mares for the hunt and for war. Stallions were used only for stud. Most colts were sold to horse dealers because only a few were needed for breeding. Breeding was only traced through the mares, not the studs. A pure-bred or "Asil" mare was highly revered. It was believed that only an Asil mare could carry one to victory in war.


Belgian

COLDBLOOD

OVERVIEW
From the time of Julius Caesar's occupation of what is now Belgium, the Belgian horse has enjoyed a great reputation as a powerful and versatile horse. The Belgian Draft Horse is called the Brabant horse in Europe, and in America it is called the Belgian. The Belgian is the descendant of the type of horse used by knights as war horses. Richard the Lionhearted imported many Belgians to England. When the mounted knight became obsolete, the Belgian's strength was utilized in agriculture. The Belgian has been exported throughout the world to improve local stock. It has greatly influenced the Shire, Clydesdale, and Suffolk Punch of Britain, and the Rheinesh Horse of Germany.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The Belgian usually exceeds 16 hands in height and very often exceeds 18 hands. It is a docile horse and a willing worker. The American Belgian has a relatively large head and short, feathered, muscular legs and large quarters. The feet are large and have minimum feather. In America, its color is usually chestnut or roan with white or blonde mane, tail and points. Its weight averages between 1800 and 2000 pounds; some stallions reach 2400.

 

ORIGIN
The Belgian Draft Horse is descended from the war horse of the Middle Ages. Its location of origin is Brabant, in what is now Belgium. Belgians, as the breed is known in America, differ slightly from its European ancestor the Brabant. American dealers imported mostly sorrel stock, and these colors were passed on through subsequent generations.

INTERESTING FACTS
The first Belgian was imported to America by Dr. A. G. Van Hoorebeck of Illinois in 1866. The Belgian is the most popular work horse in America.


Haflinger

COLDBLOOD

OVERVIEW
The Haflinger is quite similar to the Avelignese breed of Italy, where the Haflinger was originally bred prior to World War I. The Haflinger is noted for its ability to climb in steep mountain regions with agility. It has traditionally been used as a pack horse in the mountains, but it is also used in forestry and light agricultural work. Austrian farmers are allowed to keep mares, but stallions are owned by the state and are kept as studs. Only the finest stallions are allowed to breed and, therefore, the quality and purity of the breed is excellent. The Haflinger is noted for its great strength relative to its size, its handsome appearance and a gentle disposition.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
One of the prominent and most consistent characteristics of the Haflinger is its color. It is always chestnut, in varying shades, and the mane and tail are consistently flaxen or cream-colored. White markings are acceptable. The head is large with wide-set eyes. The neck is substantial and the mane is, if not clipped, long and full, as is the tail. The body is relatively long and the back is broad; the chest is full. It has powerful quarters and short legs with a limited amount of feather about the fetlocks. It stands at about 14 hands. It is noted for its longevity.

 

ORIGIN
This is an ancient breed which, some historians assert, is derived from horses brought to the northern provinces of Rome by Goths about 555 AD. In any case, the Haflinger was originally bred in the District of Halfling, near Moreno in Italy (Austria ceded this area to Italy after World War I). The Haflinger's Italian counterpart is the Avelignese. The breed is now bred in Austria and the government owns stud farms at Piber and Ossiach where the stallions are kept. The Haflinger combines a heritage of Coldblooded and Oriental ancestors.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
In recent years the Haflinger has enjoyed a great deal of popularity, and it is being exported to other countries, particularly Great Britain. It has proven to be an excellent mount for the novice rider.


Hanoverian

WARMBLOOD

 

OVERVIEW
The ancestor of the Hanoverian horse was the German "war horse" of the Middle Ages. With the passing of the armored knight, the Hanoverian was bred with Spanish and Oriental horses to change its conformation for use as a cavalry horse. This new Hanoverian horse was capable of working under saddle, in harness on the farm or drawing carriages. In 1735, King George II of England (a German) founded the famous Landgestiit Celle which is to this day the official stud and training facility with over 200 stallions. Today the Hanoverian has been crossed with more Thoroughbred blood, as well as, Trakehner. It proves a superlative hunter, dressage and show jumping horse.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The Hanoverian's conformation reflects the influence of considerable cross-breeding in recent years. It stands between 16 and 17.1 hands and has a substantial body. Its shoulders and chest are large and the back is long. The neck is of medium size, the head is rather long and narrow, and the legs are clean. It appears in various colors: brown, chestnut, bay and black being the most common.

 

ORIGIN
The Hanoverian Horse gains its name from its place of origin: the province of Hanover, Lower Saxony, in western Germany. The blood lines of the breed reach back at least to the early Middle Ages. It has been crossed with many other breeds - most notably Thoroughbred and Trakehner - to attain its current conformation.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
Elector Ernest Augustus (1629-1698) adopted the white horse for his coat of arms. The Electress Sophia began the development of the famous white or cream Hanoverian coach horses. A long tradition already existed in preference for white German horses. The Hanoverian Creams, also known as Isabellas, were used in British royal processions from the reign of George I to George V, when they were replaced by the Windsor Greys.


Morab

WARMBLOOD

OVERVIEW
Over the years, the Morab has mainly been used to improve other breeds rather than developed for its own merits. This has been changing in recent years, as breeders are seeing the beauty and good action of the horse. Breeding of the Morab has, however, been limited across the U.S. with only a few selective enthusiasts working with the stock.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
This horse is found in any solid color with white markings permissible on the legs and face. The head is large and refined, with intelligent eyes. The long neck is heavy but not overly so. The Morab is a muscular horse with long sloping shoulders and a deep chest. The back is relatively short and strong.

 

ORIGIN
This breed was developed in America in the early 1800s. Generally, the horse was an Arabian-Morgan mix and was given space in both stud books until the 1930s. The Arabian-Morgan cross was perhaps most successful in 1854 when the Stallion Golddust was born. Golddust was known for his trotting speed, which he passed on to his progeny. The Civil War hampered further Morab breeding and it wasn't until the eccentric millionaire William Randolph Hearst took an interest in the Arabian-Morgan cross that the horse regained some of its past reputation. It was at this time that the Morab name was applied.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
Golddust was produced by L.L. Dorsey in 1854. This stallion was the result of crossing an Arab mare (daughter of the famous stallion Zilcaddie) to a stallion registered Vermont Morgan 69. Golddust was said to be one of the most beautiful horses of his time, and most talented. In 1861, in a match race for $10,000, he defeated Iron Duke.

 


Morgan

WARMBLOOD

 

OVERVIEW
The Morgan horse is a native American breed with an outstanding reputation for its elegance and versatility. While many breeds have found greatness due to their brilliance at a certain task, the Morgan's greatness is based on its versatility. It is used in carriage harness, under saddle, in the show ring, sport events, and in many general purpose activities and tasks. The foundation sire, Justin Morgan, was foaled in Massachusetts in 1789. He was a proponent sire and an extraordinary worker for his size. For many years, the Morgan horse was the fastest horse for harness racing. It also earned a great reputation as a cavalry mount in the Civil War. The Morgan is the only breed accepted as the basis for the cavalry remount service.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The Morgan averages between 14.1 and 15.1 hands and occasionally reaches 16 hands. It is most frequently found in the colors bay and chestnut, although buckskin, black, palomino, gray, dun, crŤme, and brown are accepted. The Morgan is easily recognized by his proud carriage, upright graceful neck, and distinctive head with expressive eyes. Deep bodied and compact, the Morgan has strongly muscled quarters. The Morgan horse has a dramatic gait with considerable action.

 

ORIGIN
The Morgan breed was founded by a horse foaled in 1789 in West Springfield, Massachusetts. As a young horse, he was called Figure. According to the New England custom at the time, he was named after his owner, Justin Morgan. When Morgan died, the horse was sold. Justin Morgan proved to be a proponent sire that produced a breed which could haul logs one day and win an important race the next.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
Justin Morgan's most important sons - those which carried on the best Morgan qualities - were Sherman, Woodbury, Bulrush, and Revenge. Perhaps the most famous Morgan in harness racing was the great Ethan Allen. In 1867 at the age of 18, he won a match race with Hambletonian's famous son Dexter, the supreme trotter of that time. The Morgan became a popular mount in the American west after the Civil War. It remained the favored horse for carriage work until the automobile superseded horse-drawn vehicles. Besides Justin Morgan, one of the most famous Morgan horses was Black Hawk. He was sired by Sherman Morgan and out of an unknown mare. It is said she was a from Canadian breed stock. Black Hawk was foaled in New Hampshire in 1833. He was not an attractive horse and was high-strung in his youth. His owner nearly had him gelded. He became a pre-eminent sire and his get were at one time considered a separate breed of horse: "Black Hawks," not Morganís. He was the first stallion in American to receive a stud fee of $100, a considerable sum for the 1800's. Among his many offspring was the famous trotter Ethan Allen. Although Black Hawk died in 1856, he was still considered the second greatest Morgan sire in 1900. The Standardbred owes its greatest characteristic - namely speed - to Hambletonianís, who proved to be history's greatest progenitor of both gait and speed. But the Morgan greatly influenced the Standardbred's stamina and conformation. Some 90 percent of modern American Saddlehorses such as Wing Commander and Rex Peavine trace to Peavine, a great-grandson of Black Hawk. Allen F-1, the founding sire of the Tennessee Walking Horse was a descendent of Black Hawk on his dam's side. Some authorities assert that Steel Dust, foaled about 1845 and one of the greatest sired in the history of the Quarter Horse, was a Morgan.


Mustang

WARMBLOOD

 

OVERVIEW
The Mustang descended from horses brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors over 400 years ago. In the 1500s, Spanish explorers and settlers moved into North America, bringing their horses with them. The Mustang descended from Spanish horses which either strayed, broke loose or were stolen from the explorerís herds. These horses multiplied freely over hundreds of years on the open plains of the West. In 1834, for instance, 15,000 Mustangs were seen in the vicinity of an Indian camp in Texas. The Mustang's wild home gave it a tough and independent nature. Its hearty constitution made it an excellent horse for cowboys and some were even broken to pull stagecoaches.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The Mustang is a relatively small, hearty horse and since its breeding is not controlled, appears in various forms. Some are rough and unattractive; others are elegant and resemble their Oriental ancestors from Spain. They generally stand between 14 and 15 hands. Their coloring is various. Spotted colors are quite common, gurllo, a blue-gray color is often seen, as is buckskin, a dun color with black points. The Mustang is of uneven temperament and is very rugged.

 

ORIGIN
The Mustang is a descendent of Spanish horses brought to the Americas first by the Spanish in the early 1500s. As such, their ancestry traces back to Barb and Arabian horses brought to Spain by the Moors. The Mustang is found throughout the Western United States. The term "Mustang" is derived from the Spanish work mestena which means horses of uncertain ownership.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
Spanish horses, the ancestors of the Mustang, thrived in the arid environment of the American West since it so clearly represented that of Spain and North Africa. The Spanish horses which escaped from captivity multiplied rapidly. The number of escaped horses was quite large. As early as 1596, for instance, the Spanish Governor of Santa Fe reported 300 horses and mules, one-fifth of the stock, had strayed while grazing. A century later, in 1690, General Alonzo De Leon lost 126 horses in East Texas. In 1691, a Spanish expedition lost another 135 horses. By the 1800s, one observer reported seeing 20,000 Mustangs grazing in the San Joaquin Valley of California.


Palomino

COLOR BREED

 

OVERVIEW
Most breeds are classified according to lineage, but the Palomino is determined by color. Various breeds of horses can be Palominos. Quarter Horses make up about fifty percent of registered Palominos, while the remainder are Thoroughbreds, Standardbredís, American Saddle Horses, Arabians, Morganís and Tennessee Walking Horses. It is difficult to breed Palominos, as they do not regularly perpetuate their coloring genetically. Bred to one another, Palominos produce chestnuts or cremellos (a horse with 2 cream genes) as often as they produce a horse of their own color type. For more on cremellos and perlinos visit the Cremello & Perlino Educational Association web site http://www.doubledilute.com/

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The Palomino is frequently a subject of attention since its bright coloring distinguishes it from other horses. The skin of the Palomino may be dark or light, although the coat must be gold in color. The coats of dark-skinned Palominos often turn white in winter, while light-skinned maintain the gold coloring year round. The Palomino stands between 14 and 17 hands. The mane and tail are white, and the eyes must be brown, black or hazel.

 

ORIGIN
The origin of the Palomino is determined, in terms of conformation, by considering the origin of the breed of which it is a member.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
The Palomino gains its name from the Royal family in Spain, Palomino. Horses with Palomino coloring have been very popular throughout history. Cortes brought a number of Queen Isabellaís Palominos with him to America in 1519. Some of these, or their offspring, eventually escaped and contributed to the Palomino coloring once common in Mustangs. Although Palominos are found in many different breeds, about 50 percent are registered Quarter horses.
Paso Fino

WARMBLOOD

 

OVERVIEW
The Paso Fino is said to be a direct ancestor of the imported Spanish horses of the 16th century with the only variations being those that helped suit the horse to the new climate. The horse is known primarily for its unique step for which it is named. In addition to the Paso Fino, the horse also exhibits two other natural four-beat gaits: the Paso Corto and the Paso largo. The Paso Fino is a slow and collected gait, the Paso Corto covers long distances at a steady gait, and the Paso Largo is a faster four beat.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The Paso Fino stands, on average, 14 hands high and comes in all colors including albino and pinto. The head is generally small compared to the body and of Arabian-type, with short pricked ears. The neck is long and fully arched with a naturally long mane and tail. It has good shoulders with a short back and strong loins and quarters. The legs are light of bone and hard.

 

ORIGIN
It is said that the Paso Fino descends directly from horses brought to the Caribbean Islands in the early 1500s. The islands' hilly and rocky terrain negated the use of fast horses. Over time this Spanish stock, mainly Jennet, was selected for a slow, steady, collected gait. Existing in such isolated environments some inbreeding took place and the horses declined in size and naturally passed on the unique gaits required to traverse the island terrain. After time, mainly to increase size, these horses were crossed by breeders with Arabian, American Saddle Horse, Tennessee Walking Horse and Morgan. Only the Morgan seemed to improve the breed without nullifying the gaits of the native horses. The horse is now becoming popular in the U.S.; strains that were developed separately in Puerto Rico, Peru, and Colombia are now being merged into a single strain.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
After many years of careless breeding and little attention, the Paso Fino found favor in Puerto Rico as a unique breed. In 1943, the Federacion del Deporte de Caballos de Silla de Puerto Rico was formed in an effort to improve the horse. The improvements manifested quickly, making an elegant and calm-natured horse.


Pinto

COLOR BREED

 

OVERVIEW
The Pinto horse is a color breed in contrast to most other breeds which are defined by their genetic ancestry. In America, the Pinto is regarded as a proper breed. Pintos have a dark background coloring and upon this color random patches of white. The Pinto coloration may occur in any breed or specific conformation. However, the Pinto Horse Association of America does not accept horses with Appaloosa, Draft, or mule breeding or characteristics. In the American west, the Pinto has traditionally been regarded as a horse the American Indian favored as a war horse since its coloring provided a natural camouflage.


PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The Pinto does not have consistent conformation since it is bred for color. When the darker color is black, the horse is often described as Piebald. When the darker color is anything but black, the horse is described as Skewbald. Pintos may be from a variety of breeds, ranging from Thoroughbred to Miniatures.

 

There are four acknowledged types of conformation however: the Saddle type, Stock type, Hunter type and Racing type. Type is determined by the conformation and background of each horse/pony. The STOCK TYPE Pinto is of predominantly Quarter and Paint breeding and conformation. The HUNTER TYPE Pinto is of predominantly Thoroughbred breeding and conformation. The PLEASURE TYPE Pinto is of predominantly Arabian or Morgan breeding and conformation. The SADDLE TYPE Pinto is American Saddlebred, Tennessee Walking or Missouri Foxtrotter breeding and conformation.

Pintos are also classified and registered according to their size. Animals maturing over 56" in height at the withers are horses. Ponies are animals 56" and under, but over 34". Any animals 34" and under at maturity is termed a miniature. B Miniature is a further classification for animals over 34" but not exceeding 38" at maturity. Each division, having its own rules and standards, allows for exhibition against "like" conformation and styles.

 

ORIGIN
Though commonly associated with the Native American for its legendary magical qualities in battle, the Pinto horse was actually introduced to North America by European explorers, chiefly those from Spain, bringing their Barb stock that had been crossed with native European stock years before. It is believed that the Pinto patterns may have arrived in Europe via the Arabian strains, as Pinto markings appear in ancient art throughout the Middle East. However, evidence of the more dominant Tobiano pattern among the wild horses of the Russian Steppes suggests the introduction of Pinto coloring to Europe possibly as early as during the Roman Empire.

 

After the arrival of these European horses, great wild herds infused with the flashy color patterns we know today began to develop across America, eventually to be domesticated by the Native American. The white man continued to import many of the well-established and stylish European breeds as his foundation stock. Over time, however, with the civilization of the Native American and the white man's migration to the frontier, it often became necessary to cross these fancy, but less suitable breeds of the Eastern seaboard with the wild mustang stock to increase size and attractiveness as well as availability of a horse better suited to the strenuous working conditions of the day. This Western-bred horse became a fixture of America, especially the uniquely marked Pinto whose colorful presence in parades and films always added a little extra glamour.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
What are the Pinto patterns and how do they differ? There are two recognized Pinto color patterns:

1) TOBIANO (Toe-bee-ah'-no) appears to be white with large spots of color, often overlapping on animals with a greater percentage of color than white. Spots of color typically originate from the head, chest, flank, and buttock, often including the tail. Legs are generally white, giving the appearance of a white horse with large or flowing spots of color. Generally, the white crosses the center of the back or top line of the horse. It is considered necessary to have a Tobiano parent to achieve a Tobiano foal.

2) OVERO(O-vair'-o) appears to be a colored horse with jagged white markings usually originating on the animal's side or belly, spreading toward the neck, tail, legs, and back. The color appears to frame the white spots. Thus, an Overo often has a dark tail, mane, legs, and backline. Bald or white faces often accompany the Overo pattern. Some Overos show white legs along with splashy white markings, seemingly comprised of round, lacy white spots. White almost never crosses the back or top line. A horse of Pinto coloration descendant from two solid colored parents of another typically solid colored pure breed is called a "crop-out" and is of the Overo pattern.


Pony of the Americas

PONY

 

OVERVIEW
The Pony of the Americas is a popular and growing breed. It was begun in 1954 to provide a pony with good appearance, speed and stamina for young riders who were too big for a small pony but not ready for a full-sized horse. The breed, more commonly called the POA, has distinct characteristics inherited from the Arabian, Shetland and Welsh Ponies. The POA has one of the six Appaloosa colors. POA ponies are quick and durable. Races similar to Quarter Horse races are staged for children, and the times recorded come close to races for full-sized horses. POA ponies are used on ranches, for trail and endurance rides and in jumping.

 

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The Pony of the Americas stands between 11.2 and 13.2 hands in height. It has a refined head with a dished, Arabian-like nose, expressive eyes and fine ears. The body is full, the chest broad and the shoulders should be sloping. The quarters are substantial and the legs should have ample bone. This breed appears in one of the so-called Appaloosa colors. At birth, many POA foals are solid-colored and only become spotted as they mature. The POA is a strong, fast and durable pony capable of performing a wide variety of tasks.

 

ORIGIN
The Pony of the Americas breed was founded in 1954 in Iowa. The foundation sire was Black Hand #1. Among the breeds influencing the POA are the Arab, Thoroughbred, Quarter Horse, Appaloosa, Welsh Pony and Shetland Pony.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
The foundation stallion of the breed Pony of the Americas was Black Hand #1. In 1954, his owner, Leslie Boomhower of Mason City, Iowa, began a registry of this distinguished pony's offspring. Black Hand was sired by a Shetland Pony, out of an Appaloosa mare. In 1970, fifteen years after its founding, the POA registry carried over 12,000 registered horses. Today that number exceeds 40,000.


Quarter Horse

WARMBLOOD

 

OVERVIEW
The Quarter Horse is truly an American breed of horse. It was created to compete in quarter racing, one of the earliest forms of horse racing in America. The founding stallion was a Thoroughbred named Janus, imported to America in 1756. He was a famous sire of great racers in Colonial America. The Quarter Horse proved capable of many tasks besides racing. When the pioneers moved westward, the Quarter Horse found a new role on the cattle range where its explosive speed and intelligence proved ideal for herding cattle. The Quarter Horse became a choice mount for rodeo riders. Today the breed is also used for show jumping and combined training. The Quarter Horse is one of the most versatile horses.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The three types of Quarter Horses are the heavy "bulldog" type, Thoroughbred type and popular intermediate type. The bulldog type has massive muscles, large hind quarters and shoulders and a body with substantial barrel. The Thoroughbred type shows the frequent crosses between the two breeds. It is lean in musculature, has fine bone in the legs and is sleeker than other types. The intermediate type has substantial muscle, good bone, a short back and deep body. The head is short, broad and full at the jowl, the ear small, and the neck full. The quarters are high and muscular, the legs spread. Quarter Horses are found in most colors. Paints, Pintos and Appaloosas are not permitted. The breed has intelligence and good temperament.

ORIGIN
The precise origins of the Quarter Horse have been argued incessantly and vigorously, almost from its very beginning. We know with certainty that the most important influence on the Quarter Horse came from the Thoroughbred horse, Janus, imported as a ten-year-old to America in 1756. Janus stood at stud for 24 years, but the origin of the mares he was bred with is the subject of dispute. Historians variously maintain that the ancestors were Spanish horses, Chickasaws, Gallowayís, Hobbies and so on. The characteristics of the Quarter Horse, then, are due to a host of influences from different breeds.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
An outstanding chestnut horse, Copper Bottom, was sired by the great Thoroughbred Sir Archy. He was foaled in 1828 and bred by Edward Parker in Lancaster, Pennsylvania. General Sam Houston brought him to Texas in 1839 where he lived in various areas until his death in 1860. Copper Bottom greatly influenced the Quarter Horse in Texas. Steel Dust was foaled in Kentucky in 1843; he was brought to Texas in 1844. He established a great line of Quarter Horses after enjoying a superb career on the race track. He died in 1864. Dan Tucker was foaled in 1887 in Illinois. He grew to over 15 hands and weighed some 1300 pounds. He had an excellent racing career and established one of the finest families in the breed. He was the sire of the great Peter McCue and grandsire of Joe Hancock.


Standardbred

WARMBLOOD

 

OVERVIEW
The Standardbred horse is considered to be the fastest harness horse in the world. Harness racing has been a passion in the United States since the early 1800s. Then, the Morgan horse reigned as the supreme harness horse. But an event occurring in 1849 ended the Morgan Dynasty. This event was the foaling of a horse named Hambletonianís 10, the foundation sire of the Standardbred horse. The breed gains its name from the fact that a horse must meet a certain "standard" of either timed speed at the mile or breeding in order to be properly registered. The increased brilliance of the Standardbred breed itself has reduced times for the mile by a minute - down 30 percent from the original record.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
In many respects, the Standardbred resembles its ancestor the Thoroughbred. It does not stand as tall, averaging 15.2 hands, although it has a longer body. The head is refined, set on a medium-sized neck. The quarters are muscular yet sleek. The clean hind legs are set well back. Individual Standardbredís tend to either trot or pace. This breed appears in varying colors, although bay, brown and black are predominant. It weighs between 800 and 1000 pounds.

ORIGIN
The Standardbred traces its ancestry to Messenger, from the Darley Arabian line of Thoroughbreds. He was imported to America in 1788. The Norfolk Trotter also had a strong influence on the early development of the Standardbred. Hambletonian 10, the acknowledged founder of the breed, was foaled in Orange County, New York, on May 5, 1849. He was sired by Abdallah and out of the Charles Kent mare. Hambletonian became a great sire producing a family of harness horses which outdistanced all competition. Ninety percent of all modern Standardbredís trace to him directly. A top race of each season, "The Hambletonian," bears the great sire's name.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
In 1879, the National Association of Trotting Horse Breeders stipulated the "standards" which a horse must meet in order to be registered as a Standardbred. Among the many great Standardbredís in history, some are of importance as record setters - times which increased the "standard." In 1867, a gelding named Dexter trotted the mile in 2 minutes 19 seconds. A pacer named Star Pointer reduced the time for the mile to 1:59 1/4 in 1897. In 1907, the immortal Dan Patch paced the mile in 1:56. One of the greatest trotting records was that set by the great gelding Greyhound who did the mile in 1:55 1/4 in 1938. This record lasted for 30 years.

 

There have been thousands of horses which have contributed to the excellence of the Standardbred. A few of overwhelming distinction are:

  • Goldsmith Maid -- foaled in 1857, this mare had a career spanning 12 years (1865-1877). She won $364,200, a sum not bettered for 54 years. At the remarkable age of 20, she did the mile in 2:14 1/2.
  • Dan Patch -- foaled in 1896, this pacer became a national hero by winning 54 of his 56 races. He set a world record of 2:03 1/4 in his last regular race. In an exhibition in 1904, he paced the mile in 1:55 1/4. This record stood for 33 years.
  • Greyhound -- foaled in 1932, this gelding trotted to 25 world records in a career of winning 71 of 82 heats. He died in 1965 at the age of 33, at which time 16 of his records still stood.
  • Bret Hanover -- foaled in 1962, the "Big Bum" as he is known, won 62 of 68 career races, and was voted horse of the year for three consecutive years, 1964-1966. He now stands at stud at Castleton Farm in Kentucky.

 

Today the male race horse gets an unusual share of attention. But this fact may be explained in that male horses are usually larger and more aggressive than females, and temperament to yield more speed. In the 1800s, however, it was the female which set the records in harness racing. The successive records toward the goal of the 2-minute mile were set by mares. Lady Suffolk was the first to go 2:30. Then Flora Temple did 2:20, followed by Goldsmith Maid at 2:15, Maud S. at below 2:10 and Nancy Hanks at 2:15. Finally, the great mare Lou Dillon did the 2-minute mile in 1903. Thereafter, it became a man's world. But it was the mares that were first in the search for speed.
Tennessee Walking

WARMBLOOD

 

OVERVIEW
The Tennessee Walking Horse's most distinguishing characteristic is its gait, the "Running Walk." This gait was not developed merely for show purposes, but was created to carry the rider in a smooth, comfortable fashion. The Running Walk allows the rider to retain a secure seat involving little exertion or movement. As a result of careful selective breeding of the Tennessee Walker, the running walk is now inherited. This breed also has an even temperament with an excellent disposition. The Tennessee Walking Horse was first bred by farm owners as a strong, comfortable mount on which they could supervise the work in the fields. Now the breed is a distinguished horse more often found in the show ring.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
In general appearance, the Tennessee Walking Horse should have an intelligent look, neat head, well-shaped and pointed ears, clear and alert eyes and a tapered muzzle. The neck should be long and graceful and the shoulders muscular and well sloping. The back should be short with good coupling at the loins. The animal should be deep in the girth and well ribbed and the chest should be of good proportion and width. The croup should be generally sloping and the hips well muscled with muscular development extending down toward the hocks. The legs should be flat and cordy.

 

ORIGIN
The acknowledged foundation sire of the Tennessee Walking Horse is Allan F-1 (also called Black Allan) who was foaled in Kentucky in 1886. His sire was a Standardbred (Allendorf) and his dam a Morgan (Maggie Marshall). The breed became officially registered in 1935 with the founding of the Tennessee Walking Horse Breeders' and Exhibitors' Association. The breed was originally a type of horse used by farmers and plantation owners for use as a mount in the field where its gait and endurance were highly valued.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
The particular quality of the Tennessee Walking Horse which attracts such great attention is its gait, the running walk. This gait is made distinct by the fact that the front foot strikes the ground just before the diagonal hind foot. Also, the hind foot oversteps the front foot by 6 to 15 inches. This effectively lowers the hind quarters and provides an extremely smooth ride for the rider at some speed.


Thoroughbred

HOTBLOOD

 

OVERVIEW
The Thoroughbred is one of the most brilliant and versatile horses bred in the world today. It is mostly noted for its speed on the race track, but also has great ability in hunting, polo, eventing and jumping. The Thoroughbred has been used to create new breeds of horses and to up-grade others. The key to the Thoroughbred's greatness is its great speed and endurance, for which it has been bred for nearly 300 years. The Thoroughbred originated in Great Britain, and its ancestors were Arabians who were imported and bred to native sprinting mares. The breed is traditionally traced to three "foundation" stallions: the Byerly Turk, the Godolphin Arabian, and the Darley Arabian.

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
The appearance of the Thoroughbred reveals its Arabian ancestry. It has a refined head, with widely-spaced, intelligent eyes, a long, arched neck and prominent withers. The shoulder is extremely sloped. The heart girth is deep and relatively narrow. The croup is high and the quarters are substantial. The legs are clean and long with pronounced tendons. It has a long, low stride, giving it incomparable speed as a race horse. The Thoroughbred is predominately bay in color, but gray, black, brown and chestnut are also found. It stands between 15 and 17 hands; the Thoroughbreds best suited for sprinting have shorter backs, more substantial quarters and less height.

 

ORIGIN
The Thoroughbred's genetic origin is Arabian. The Arabian foundation stallions which were brought to Britain in the late 1600s and early 1700s were bred to domestic mares - very probably Scottish Gallowayís - although they may have been bred to Arabian mares, too. A substantial number of early Thoroughbreds were bred in the vale of Bedale in the County of Yorkshire in Northern England.

 

The foundation stallions of the Thoroughbred breed and years in which they arrived in England were: the Byerly Turk (1689), the Darley Arabian (1705) and the Godolphin Arabian (1728). Their progeny were the first Thoroughbreds, per se, and although the foundation stallions had many off-spring, three of their descendants stand out as supreme: Herod, Eclipse and Matchem. In the lines of these horses were some outstanding Thoroughbreds: for instance, Princequillo and Round Table descend from Herod; Citation and Sir Ivor descend from Eclipse; and Man O' War from Matchem.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
The first Thoroughbred to arrive in America was a stallion named Bulle Rock, by the Darley Arabian. He was imported to Virginia in 1730 by Samuel Gist. In 1757, Janus, a grandson of Godolphin Arabian, was imported and became the founder of the Quarter Horse breed. Diomed, who was imported in 1800 was the most important Thoroughbred imported to America in its early years. Lexington, by Boston, was foaled in 1850 and was the greatest sire of the 1800s.

Some famous modern Thoroughbreds are:

  • Exterminator -- born in 1915, purchased in 1918 as a work horse for Sun Beau, the Derby favorite. When Sun Beau broke down before the race, Exterminator, raced at thirty to one odds, was the surprise winner.
  • Man O' War -- born in 1917, bought as a yearling by Samuel Riddle for $5,000, trained by Louis Feustel, his only loss was to Upset, as a two-year-old when he was Horse of the Year. Won 20 of 21 races. One of the greatest Thoroughbred sires of all times.
  • Equipose -- won the 1931 Preakness and the National Stallion Stakes at Belmont, known as the "Chocolate Soldier." In 1942, the years leading sire posthumously, when his colt, Shut Out, won the Derby and was the top money winner.
  • Citation -- The first Thoroughbred millionaire in history and a Triple Crown Winner. A versatile runner, by Bull Lea and born at Calumet Farm, Lexington, in 1945. He died there in 1970 at age 25, after a long and successful career as a sire.
  • Tom Fool -- born in 1949, purchased by Mrs. Harry Payne Whitney, Greentree Stable. Trained by John M. Gaver, second horse in history to win the Handicap Triple Crown. Horse of the Year and Handicap Horse of 1953.
  • Native Dancer -- this silver gray horse won 21 of 22 races in his career. Owned by Alfred G. Vanderbilt, best two-year-old of 1952 and champion three-year-old in 1953, retired in 1954. Sired Raise A Native, Majestic Prince and Kauai King.
  • Kelso -- Horse of the Year 1960-1964. Won the Handicappers' Triple Crown in 1961 followed by nearly every important American Handicap Race. Owned by Mrs. Richard C. Dupont, trained by Carl Hanford. The gelding earned $1,977,896 after 8 seasons of 39 wins in 63 races.
  • Secretariat (as pictured)-- in 1973, the first horse to win the Triple Crown since Citation in 1948, won 16 of 21 starts, fourth all-time money winner. Tied or broke 5 track records. Secretariat sold for an all-time of $6,080,000.

Welsh Cob

WARMBLOOD

 

OVERVIEW
The Welsh Cob in its ideal form is a larger version of the Welsh Mountain Pony. Although its exact origin, like many native breeds, is unknown, the modern horse gets much of its character from Spanish blood and the Norfolk Roadster. In the 12th Century, Gerald of Wales said of the Welsh Cob, they are "swift and generous steeds ridden into battle by the brave Welsh Princes and Chieftains." Established as a breed by the 15th Century, the Welsh Cob became essential to Welsh farm life including ploughing, hauling and transportation in saddle and harness. Later they were used in war for hauling guns and equipment over steep and rocky terrain.

 

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
Standing above 13.2 hands high, the Welsh Cob's general character is strong, hardy, and active. Its head is of pony character with bold eyes set far apart. The Cob has a strong, arched neck with a body that is slightly thick and very compact and strong through the ribs. Some silky feathering is found around the heel, but wiry, course hair is objectionable. The flex found in the hock joints allows the horse excellent action, giving it a noble character in harness.

 

ORIGIN
The precise origins of the Welsh Cob are unknown. It can be said, however, that much of the Cob's character comes from the Welsh Mountain Pony. During the 11th and 12th centuries the pony was crossed with Spanish horses to create a larger horse, the Powys Cob and the Welsh Cart Horse. With the mix of the Norfolk Roadsters and Yorkshire Coach Horse, including a touch of Arabian in the 18th and 19th centuries, the modern Welsh Cob was produced. There are four stallions in particular that have influenced the Welsh Cob: Trotting Comet, foaled in 1836, Cymro Llwyd, a dun foaled in 1850, Alonzo the Brave, foaled in 1866, and True Briton, foaled in 1830.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
Before stallion licensing began in 1918, the stallion breeding stock for Welsh Cobs was selected by trotting matches. Speed was recorded by stopwatch over a certain distance, with the top stallions named appropriately for such matches: Comet, Flyer, and Express. One favorite course was the route from Cardiff to Dowlais in Britain - 35 miles uphill - which the best horses could complete in under 3 hours with no slackened pace.


Welsh Pony

PONY

 

OVERVIEW
The Welsh Pony actually refers, in general, to four sections (A, B, C, and D) in the Welsh Pony and Cob Society Stud Book. Section A is the original Welsh Mountain Pony and Section C and D refer to the Welsh Cob, a heavier, scaled-up Mountain Pony. Section B is refined and a slightly larger version of the Mountain Ponies, retaining most of the characteristics of the original. The Welsh Pony is considered one of the most beautiful ponies in Britain and has run wild since long before Roman times. Today it is popular throughout the world not only for its soundness, but also for its good temperament.

 

 

 

PHYSICAL DESCRIPTION
Standing between 12 and 14 hands high depending on the section type, the Welsh Pony takes on the build of that of a miniature coach horse. The pony is found in all solid colors and has a beautiful oriental-type head with a bold eye and small pointed ears. The body is compact with noted depth of girth called the "Welsh breadbasket." It has a graceful neck and deep, sloping shoulders. The legs are generally hard with small hard feet. It is known for being spirited, courageous, and intelligent.

 

ORIGIN
Indigenous to the Welsh hills, the Welsh Pony had, before the Romans arrived in Britain, established themselves as fit, hardy animals resistant to disease. Julius Caesar introduced some Oriental blood to the pony. In the past three centuries at least two Arabian stallions have run wild in the Welsh countryside and have undoubtedly bred with the pony, most likely emphasizing the Oriental head the ponies developed during the Roman occupation. Dyoll Starlight, born in 1894, is considered the Mountain Pony's patriarch, with Tan-y-Bwlch Bewyn, foaled in 1924, being considered the Section B foundation sire.

 

INTERESTING FACTS
Although Welsh Pony studs exist throughout Britain and the U.S., native stock is imported to keep the breed true to type. The native stock is still taken from the feral herds that live in the mountains and moorlands of Wales. These animals exist in a Darwinian environment, inbreeding toughness and resistance to disease. Annual round-ups are held and the selected stock is put up for sale. Although prices have since gone up considerably, it is amusing to note that as recently 1948 an unbroken pony could be bought for $1.50.


Horse Anatomy:

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